Akarima k’igikoni

Akarima k’igikoni ni iki?
Akarima k’igikoni ni umurima w’imboga z’ubwoko butandukanye wifashishwa na buri rugo mu kunoza imirire. Ni muri urwo rwego buri muryango usabwa kugira umurima w’imboga uhoraho kandi ufashwe neza ukaba uri hafi y’urugo
Akamaro k’uturima tw’igikoni
- Buri cyiciro cy’umuryango gishobora kubona imboga zo kukoresha
- Akarima k’imboga gatanga imboga zo gukoresha mu gihe kirekire
- Akarima k’imboga gasarurwaho amoko y’imboga atandukanye
- Hakoreshwa ubuso buto bw’ubutaka rimwe na rimwe butanakoreshwaga kandi kagatanga umusaruro uhagije
- Karahendutse ku kubaka
Akamaro k’imboga
Amoko y’imboga atandukanye usanga afite intungamubiri zihagije nkenerwa mu mafunguro ya buri munsi. Imboga ziri mu birinda indwara, aho zigira uruhare rukomeye mukongera ubudahangarwa bw’umubiri.
Ibyo ugomba kwitaho mu kubaka akarima k’igikoni
1. Imboga zikundwa kuribwa n’ababa mu rugo
2. Kagomba kubakwa hafi y’igikoni
3. Amoko y’imboga ajyanye n’ibihe by’ikirere
4. Intungamubiri ziboneka mu mboga
5. Uburyo imboga zikura
Hari amoko menshi y’uturima tw’igikoni. Amwe muri ayo moko
ni aya akurikira:

-1. Akarima hafi y’urugo
- 2. Guhinga mu mifuka
- 3. Nyamusozi
- 4 Akarima k’igikoni kameze nk’amaterasi y’indinganire
- 5. Akarima gatumburutse kongerewe ubujyakuzimu(double dug bed)
- 6. Akarima kitse kongerewe ubujyakuzimu (Sunken bed).

Uko bakora uturima tw’igikoni
1. Uburyo bwo guhinga imirima yo hafi y’urugo
Mu gihe dufite ikibazo cy’ubutaka butoya mu Rwanda. Hari abantu benshi bataramenya gukoresha ndetse no kubyaza umusaruro ubutaka buto ndetse bwo hafi y’urugo.
Usanga benshi bafite imbuga nini iteyemo indabyo cyangwa se idafite ikintu na gito kiyiriho; ahubwo ugasanga ni umutwaro ku bagomba kuyisukura (Gukubura buri gihe) ndetse tutanibagiwe ko uko imvura iguye, uko bakubuye habaho isuri ikomeza kudutwara ubutaka. Ubwo butaka kimwe n’iyo mbuga nibyo dushobora kubyaza umusaruro tunyuze kuri utu turima tw’igikoni.

Umurima w’imboga ushobora gutegurwa hakoreshejwe umurima usanzwe igihe umuhinzi afite ubutaka ashobora guhingaho imboga zitandukanye acyenera gukoresha mu rugo ndetse zishobora no kumuzanira amafaranga
Umurima utegurwa mu muryo bw’amayogi aho hakatwamo imirima mito mito hagati hagasigwamo inzira zizifashishwa mu kuvomerera, kubagara, gutera imiti n’indi mirimo ishobora gukorerwamo.

Imirima yo mu mifuka
Ubu ni uburyo bwo gutera imboga mu gitaka kivanze n’ifumbire kiri mu mifuka. Iyo mvange y’igitaka n’ifumbire iba izengurutse intima y’amabuye. Imboga ziterwa ku mpande kimwe no ku gasongero k’umufuka.
Uburyo itegurwa
- Gufata itaka ryo hejuru urivange n’ifumbire y’imborera yaboze neza. Kuvanga itaka inshuro 1 y’itaka ukavanga n’inshuro 1 y’imborera. Mu gihe ifumbire ari nke ugira itaka inshuro 2 ku nshuro imwe y’imborera.
- Gufata imifuka ibiri umwe uwuseseke mu wundi,
- Fata itaka ryuzuye ibase urisuke mu mifuka; itaka ribanza mu mufuka rituma umufuka uhagarara neza;
- Fata idebe ryiburungushuye (Urugero USA) cg akadobo gato ugapfumure mu ndiba urishyire hejuru ya rya taka riri mu mufuka,
-Shaka amabuye aringaniye wuzuze muri rya debe/indobo washyize mu mufuka, amabuye akora nk’umuyoboro w’amazi igihe cyo kuhira kandi agatuma itaka ridafatana ryose ngo rihinduke nk‘ ibuye. Iyo itaka riramutse rifatanye kuhira biba bigoye kuko amazi ahara hagati ntagere ku ndiba neza.

- Kikiza itaka rivanzemo ifumbire ku mpande kugeza ku munwa w’idebe;

- Zamura idebe gahoro gahoro udashikanuje; hanyuma wongeremo amabuye n’itaka rikikije ku mpande kugeza umufuka wuzuye;

- Umufuka bawutega ibiti ku mpande byo kuwufata kugirango utazahirima;

- Nyuma bacukura utwobo ku mpande z’umufuka, akaba ari two duterwamo ingemwe.
Zimwe mu mboga ziterwa mu mifuka: amashu, dodo, intoryi, puwavuro, imbwija, …

Gutera ingemwe ku mufuka
 Mu mpande z’umufuka bateraho ingemwe gusa. Ntabwo bateraho imbuto z’impeke;
 Batera ingemwe ku buryo butambitse cyangwa se bunyuranye bagenda bazibusanya;
 Hagati y’urugemwe n’urundi hajya intera ya cm 30.
 Hejuru ku mufuka nabw
 o hashobora guterwa ingemwe.
 Ibyiza ni ugutera ubwoko bunyuranye bw’ibihingwa.
 Mu gihe cyo kuvomera, umuhinzi ashyira amazi aharinganiye n’amabuye yo hagati mu mufuka ku buryo amanukira hagati agenda yinjira mu mpande;

2. Umurima wo hafi y’igikoni (kitchen garden) Nyamusozi
 Fata itaka ryo hejuru urivange n’ifumbire y’imborera yaboze neza.
 Kuvanga itaka inshuro 1 y’itaka ukavanga n’inshuro 1 y’imborera. Mu gihe ifumbire ari nke ugira itaka inshuro 2 ku nshuro imwe y’imborera.
 Ringaniza umwanya wo gukoreramo; ni ukuvuga igihe hahanamye cg harimo ibinogo
 Toranya ahantu hashobora kuba ari hagati muri uwo mwanya ugiye guhingamo;
 Ukoresheje uwo mwanya, shaka izingiro ndetse uce uruziga rufite akarambararo ka cm150.
 Ca imbere muri urwo ruziga urundi ruziga ruto rw‘akarambararo ka cm25;
 Umuzenguruko w’imbere wucukure umwobo wa cm 50 z’ubujyakuzimu;
 Fata uduti duto udushinge tuzengurutse kuri wa mwobo;
 Fata ibyatsi cg imigongo y’amakoma ubizengurutse kuri bya biti washinze wubaka nk’uruzinga.
 Wa mwobo wubakiye uwukoreramo ifumbire y’imborera kugeza hejuru ubundi utwikireho ibyatsi;
 Tega ku mpande z’ikirundo cyawe kugirango ubutaka budatemba; ubyo utegesha biraba biri kuri wa muzenguruko w’uruziga runini
 Egerezaho rya taka kuri wa mwobo w‘imborera, urizengurutse kugeza bibaye nk‘agasozi cg umugina. NB: Ntabwo ari byiza gukandagira ku itaka uri kurunda iyo ukora kitchen garden,

 Ca umwanya wo kunyuramo bajya kuhira cg kongeramo indi fumbire muri wa mwobo/ muzinga wagize uw‘imborera. Uwo mwanya ungana na cm 60.
 Teraho imboga ukurikije izo wifuza. Iyo nta mbuto ufite zo gutera ako kanya ugomba gutwikira ikirundo cyawe kugirango ubutaka butuma kandi n’ifumbire idatakaza intungabihingwa yari ifite.
Ibikoresho bikenerwa mu gukora akarima k’igikoni/Nyamusozi
 Imetero(Umugozi wa cm 150
 Umugozi wa cm 25
 Isuka, igitiyo
 Igitaka,ifumbire
 Ibiti
 Ibyatsi, imigongo y’amakoma, imifuka

Icyitonderwa: uyu murima ugomba kuba hafi y’igikoni kugirango umuhinzi aheshe agaciro y’amazi yose yogeshaga ibyombo, ayo akarabye, ayo yarongesheje imyaka ndetse n’ibisigazwa byo mu gikoni byose bibora bigashyirwa muri wa mwenge.

3. Akarima kameze nk’amaterasi y’indinganire:
Uburyo bwo kubaka akarima k’igikoni
Akarima k’igikoni kagomba gushyirwa hafi y’urugo cyangwa mu rugo kugirango nyirako ashobore kukitaho ku buryo bworoshye. Ako karima kagenda gakorwa mu buryo butandukanye, kugira ngo basimbure ishusho y’akarima ka mbere katagaragaza uburyo bwo kurwanya isuri (Reba ifoto iri munsi).
Gatangira kubakwa hacibwa uruziga rwa mbere rufite umurambararo wa cm 50. Hagakurikiraho guca uruziga rwa kabiri muri metero imwe (1m) uvuye ku ruziga rwa mbere. Ako karima kaba kubatse hifashishijwe ibiti byinshi bigakorwa mu ishusho ry’umusozi izengurutswe n’amaterasi y’indinganire. Hakurikiraho gucukura mu ruziga rwa mbere kugera muri cm 20 z’ubujyakuzimu ukavanamo itaka. Gushinga ibiti bizengurutse uruziga rwa mbere, bifite uburebure bwa metero 1,5. Gukikiza ibyo biti bishinze igitaka kivanze n’ifumbire ukageza ku rubariro ruri muri 20cm uvuye hejuru. Imvange y’igitaka n’ifumbire ishyirishwaho igitiyo ku buryo itaka rikora nk’akarunga ariko ntirirenge aho uruziga rwa kabiri rugarukira. Kugira ngo itaka ritarenga uruziga, barishyigikiza ibintu birifata: ibiti, imitumba, amatafari n‘amabuye. Gusiga ubwinjiriro aho umuhinzi ahagarara avomera cyangwa ashyira imyanda ivamo ifumbire mu mwobo usigara hagati y’ibiti.

Ibyiza by’akarima gafite ishusho y’amaterasi y’indinganire
Ako karima k’igikoni gafite umwihariko wo kurwanya isuri, kuko gakoranye ishusho nk’iyamaterasi y’indinganire. Iyo shusho ituma ako karima gashobora gufata amazi mu buryo bwose, bityo kakaba gashobora kumara igihe kinini ugereranyije n’akarima k’igikoni gasanzwe gakoreshwa. Ako karima gakoze ku buryo umusaruro w’ibigahinzweho ushobora guhoraho igihe cyose. Ako karima k’igikoni kamara umwaka gatanga umusaruro, nyuma y’umwaka kakaba kagomba kuvugururwa hakoreshejwe ukuvanga ifumbire y’imborera n’itaka ryiza ku kigero kimwe.

Akarima gatumburutse kongerewe ubujyakuzimu (double dug bed)
 Ibikenerwa :
Umurima, Ifumbire, amasuka, ibitiyo, ipiki.

Akarima gatumburutse kongerewe ubujyakuzimu (double dug bed)

Uko gakorwa
 Gutoranya umurima gakorerwamo;
 Gupima agatabo gafite ubugari bwa metero na santimetero makumyabiri (1,20 m), n’uburebure ushatse bitewe n’uko umurima ungana cyangwa bitewe nuko ubishaka (muri rusange kaba kareshya na metero 7,5);
 Kugabanya uburebure bw’agatabo mo udupande twinshi dufite santimetero 90 z’uburebure;
 Gushyira ifumbire y’imborera yuzuye ingorofani muri buri gapande;
 Kuvanga muri buri gapande ifumbire n’ubutaka bwo hejuru kugera mu bujyakuzimu bwa cm 30;
6. Akarima kitse kongerewe ubujyakuzimu (sunken bed)
Uko gakorwa
 Gutoranya umurima gakorerwamo;
 Gupima agatabo gafite ubugari bwa metero na santimetero makumyabiri (1,20 m), n’uburebure ushatse bitewe nuko umurima ungana cyangwa uko ubishaka (muri rusange kaba kareshya na metero 7,5);
 Kugabanya uburebure bw’agatabo mo udupande (uduce) twinshi dufite santimetero 90 z’uburebure;
 Gushyira ifumbire y’imborera yuzuye ingorofani muri buri gapande;
 Kuvanga muri buri gapande, ifumbire n’ubutaka bwo hejuru bwo kugera mu bujyakuzimu bwa cm 30;
 Gushyira iruhande itaka rivanze n’ifumbire ryo mu gapande ka mbere;
 Kumena ubutaka bukomeye bwo hasi kuva muri cm 30 kugera muri cm 60 z’ubujyakuzimu;
 Kuvana mu gapande ka mbere itaka ryo hasi rimeneye rigashyirwa ku ruhande ariko ntirivangwe n’iryo hejuru;
 Gushyira mu gapande ka mbere kavanywemo itaka ryo hasi, imvange y’ibyatsi byumye n’ibyatsi bibisi ukageza muri ¾ by’icyobo;
 Gushyira hejuru y’ibyatsi itaka rivanze n’ifumbire ryo mu gapande ka kabiri;

 Kumena ubutaka bukomeye bwo hasi kuva muri cm 30 kugera muri cm 60 z’ubujyakuzimu bwo mu gapande ka kabiri;
 Kuvanamo itaka ryo hasi rimeneye rigashyirwa ku ruhande;
 Gushyira mu gapande ka kabiri kavanywemo itaka ryo hasi, imvange y’ibyatsi byumye n’ibyatsi bibisi ukageza muri ¾ by’icyobo;
 Gushyira hejuru y’ibyatsi itaka rivanze n’ifumbire ryo mu gapande ka gatatu;
 Gukomeza gutyo kugeza ubwo udupande twose turangiye;
 Itaka ryo hejuru rivanze n’ifumbire ryo mu gapande ka mbere rishyirwa mu gapande ka nyuma;
 Gushyira iruhande itaka rivanze n’ifumbire ryo mu gapande ka mbere;
 Kumena ubutaka bukomeye bwo hasi kugera muri cm 60 z’ubujyakuzimu;
 Gushyira hejuru y’ubutaka bumeneye bwo mu gapande kambere ingorofani yuzuye ibyatsi byumye bivanze n’ibyatsi bibisi;
 Gushyira hejuru y’ibyatsi, ubutaka buvanze n’ifumbire bwo mu gapande ka kabiri;
 Kumena ubutaka bukomeye bwo hasi kuva muri cm 30 kugera muri cm 60 mu gapande ka kabiri;
 Gushyira hejuru y’ubutaka bumeneye, ubutaka bwo hejuru buvanze n’ifumbire bwo mu gapande ka gatatu;
 Gukomeza gukora gutyo kugera ubwo udupande twose turangiye;
 Ubutaka bumeneye bwo hasi mu gapande ka nyuma (bwo hagati ya cm30 na cm 60) bushyirwaho itaka ryo hejuru rivanze n’ifumbire ryo mu gapande ka mbere (ryari ryashyizwe ku ruhande) ;
Iyo urangije gutegura udupande twose, utwikira ubutaka kugira ngo bugumane ubuhehere.
Sunken bed Uko gakorwa (Icyitonderwa)
 Akarima gateguye kuri ubu buryo gashobora guhingwaho imyaka itatu katongeye gushyirwamo indi fumbire usibye kumena ubutaka bwo hejuru no kuvanamo ibyatsi bibi.
 Ubu buryo bwo gutegura umurima kandi buberanye n’ahantu hagwa imvura nyinshi kuko iyo iguye ari nyinshi amazi atareka mu gatabo ahubwo aya ngombwa yinjira mu butaka andi akajya mu mpande mu tugende two hagati y’udutabo bityo ntiyangize imyaka.
 Iyo udupande twose turangiye umuhinzi akikiza itaka rimeneye ryo hasi ryashyizwe ku mpande z’udupande twose ku mpande z’agatabo (bigakora akantu kameze nk’akarundo);

Sunken bed (Uko bikorwa)

Igishushanyo cyerekana uko bategura akarima kitse kongerewe ubujyakuzimu

Imbonerahamwe y’imihingire y’imboga IZINA RY’URUBOGA

IGIHE ZIMARA ZIFITE IMBARAGA ZO KUMERA (imyaka)

IGIHE IMBUTO ZIMARA MUBUTAKA KUGIRANGO IMBUTO ZIMERE (jr)

UMUBARE W’IMBUTO UBA MURI 1grm Y’UMWAYI

UMUBARE W’INGEMWE ZIVA MURI 1grm Y’UMWAYI

UMUBARE WA GARAMA ZO GUTERA KURI ARI 1

UMUBARE W’INGEMWE ZITERWA KURI ARI 1

IGIHE IGIHINGWA KIMARA MUMURIMA KUVA GITERWA KUGEZA BAHUMBA (AMEZI)

UMUSARURO KURI ARI 1 (KG)

INGERO BATERERAHO (cm)

Amashu :

. atukura

. yera

4-5

3-6

300-375

100

3-4

278

3/5

100-400

60 x 60

Puwalo

1-2

8-12

400

150-200

8-10

1666

4/8-10

200-250

30 x 10

Ibitunguru

2

7-15

250

100-120

15-20

2222

4/6

200-300

20 x 20

Seleri

8

15-24

2500

1000-1500

1

833

4-10-12

200-500

40 x 30

Perisili

3

15-20

800-1000

400-500

2

833

4/10-12

200-250

40 x 30

Inyanya

4

4-6

400

250-300

1

156

4-6

60-300

50 x 50

Intoryi

6

8-15

250

120

1

156

4/6

150-400

100 x 100

Karoti

4-5

4-6

900

400-500

20-23

10000

4/6

100-300

30 x 4.5

Leti

5

2-5

800

600-800

3-4

1333

2/4

20-200

30 X 30

Puwavuro

3-4

8-10

140-160

50-70

4-5

278

4/6-10

50-200

40 x 40

Imirimo ikorerwa imboga

Izina

Itera

Ingero batereraho(cm)

Imirimo nyuma yo gutera

Amezi batereraho

Ifumbire

guhumbika

mumurima

Amashu

2. Atukura

3. Yera

 

*

*

-

-

60x60

-Gusukira

-kurwanya udukoko

8-9

1-2

xxx

mu ihinga no kurugemwe rw’ishu

Puwaro

*

30x10

-gusukira

-Guhambira amababi

8-4

xx

mu ihanga no mu kobo bagemuriramo

Ubutunguru

*

*

20x20

Kuryamisha amababi igihe byeze

9-3

x

ifimbire y’igihingwa cyabanjirije ubutunguru

Seleri

*

40x30

-

8-3

xx

igereranyije yaboze neza

Perisiri

-

*

40x25

-Guhanagura hasi yazo

Nyuma y’amezi 4 yeze gushyira mumurima amase y’inka yaboze neza

9-10

xx

yaboze neza

Inyanya

*

-

50x50

-Kuvanaho ibisambo

-guca imitwe igihe hamaze kuzaho imbuto 4 cg 6

- Guhemberera

9-10

3-4

xx

ihinga

Intoryi

*

-

100x100

-Gukuraho ibisambo

-Gutema umutwe igihe hamaze kuzaho indabyo z’intoryi 3 cg 4

8-10

1-3

x ifumbire y’igihingwa cyabanjirije intoryi

Karoti

-

*

30x4-5

Kwaganya karroti iyo zimaze kugira cm 8cg 10 z’uburebure

9-11

2-4

Ivu mu mirongo bateramo

xxx

Leti

*

*

30x30

-

8-3

xxx

Imbwija

*

*

40x20

Kwicira no gukata

Buri gihe

xxx

                       

Icyitonderwa ku byerekeye ifumbire ibi bimenyetso bishaka kuvuga:
xxx: ifumbire nyinshi x: ifumbire nkeya xx:ifumbire:ugereranije

Imbonerahamwe1. Intungamubiri ziri mu mboga za gakondo n’iza kizungu muri garama 100

Imboga za gakondo (Indigenous vegetables)

Izina

Poroteyini

(g)

Calisiyumu

(mg)

Ubutare

(mg)

β-carotene

(mg)

Vitamini C (mg)

Imbwija/dodo (amaranthus)

4.0

480

10

10.7

135

Isogi (spiderplant)

5.1

262

19

8.7

144

Inkoli (cowpea)

4.7

152

39

5.7

87

Isogo (nightshade)

4.6

442

12

8.8

131

Ishu nyafrica (kale)

2.5

187

32

7.3

93

Imboga za kizungu (Exotic vegetables)

Ishu ya kizungu (Cabbage)

1.4

44

0.8

1.2

33

Karoti (carrot)

1.2

36

1.2

5.2

10

Epinari (spinach)

2.3

93

32

5.1

28

Inyanya (Tomato)

1.1

6

0.6

0.5

22

Ibitunguru (Onion)

2.7

53

2.3

-

32

Icyitonderwa: umurima w’igikoni ugomba kuba ahantu hategereye ubwiherero kuko ushobora guteza zimwe mu ndwara ziterwa n’umwanda igihe zitakorewe isuku ihagije mbere yo kuzikoresha.

Byateguwe hifashishijwe imfashanyigisho z'Ikigo cy’igihugu gishinzwe guteza imbere ubuhinzi n’ubworozi (RAB)

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