Ingagi

Ingagi ni zo nyamaswa nini zo mu bwoko bw’inguge. Zikunze kuboneka mu mashyamba yo muri Afurika yo hagati, kandi ziba ku butaka.

Ingagi zirimo amoko abiri, nayo arimo amoko mato mato ane cyangwa atanu nk’uko abashakashatsi babigaragaje mu mwaka w’2008. ADN y’ingagi ijya gusa n’iy’umuntu, hagati ya 95 na 99% bitewe n’icyo umushakashatsi yitayeho abara. Ingagi kandi ni inyamaswa zikunda kwibanira n’abantu nyuma y’amoko abiri y’inguge. Ubuturo gakondo bw’inguge buboneka mumashyamba yo muri Afurika yo hagati, ariko zikunda kwiturira mu misozi miremire:

Ingagi yo mu misozi miremire (Mountain Gorilla) ituye muri Rifuti Vali y’imisozi miremire ya Albert, ikunze kurangwa n’ishyamba ry’inzitane ryo mu misozi y’ibirunga, ifite ubutumburuke buri hagati ya metero 2200 n’4300.
Ingagi yo misozi migufi iba mu ishyamba ry’inzitane n’irisanzwe. Aha twavuga nk’ingagi zibera mu mashyamba yo mu bihugu by’Afurika y’iburengerazuba. Urugero ni nka Repubulika Iharanira Demukarasi ya Kongo hafi y’umupaka wayo n’u Rwanda.

Inkomoko y’izina Gorilla (ingagi)

Izina gorilla (ingagi), ryaturutse ku rurimi rw’Ikigereki "Γόριλλαι" (Gorillai), ubwoko bw’abagore bagiraga imisatsi myinshi. Ubushakashatsi bw’Umukerarugendo w’Umunyatuniziya yo hambere witwaga Hanno waje no gusura igihugu cyahindutse Sierra Leone mu mwaka wa 480 mbere ya Yesu, ni bwo izi nzobere ebyiri zahereyeho zitanga iri zina. Yatembereye muri Afurika y’iburengerazuba, ahahurira n’abagore basaga n’abambaye ubusa, bafite ubwoya bwinshi ku mubiri, ari bo baje kwitwa Gorillae. Umuganga w’umumisiyoneri w’Umunyamerika Thomas Staughton Savage afatanije n’impuguke mu bumenyi bw’ibinyabuzima Jeffries Wyman nibo bise iyi nyamaswa yabonekaga mu bihugu by’iburengerazuba ku nshuro ya mbere, bayita Troglodytes gorilla mu mwaka w’1847, bafatiye ku ngagi zabonekaga mu gihugu cya Liberiya.
Uko ingagi yagiye ihindagurika

Inyamaswa zijya guhuza ubwoko n’ingagi kandi bibana cyane, ni inguge. Abandi bashakashatsi bavuga ko ingagi yenda gusa n’umuntu. Inguge n’umuntu bivugwa ko byakomotse ku mukurambere umwe wo mu bwoko bwa Hominidae, wabonetse nko mu myaka miliyoni zirindwi ihise.

Ingirabuzima z’umubiri w’umuntu zitandukanye gusa n’iz’ingagi ho 1.6%, ariko hari itandukaniro rinini ku mubare ingirangingo z’izo ngiramubiri. Kugera mu minsi ya vuba, abahanga bavugaga ko hariho ubwoko bumwe bw’ingagi nabwo bugabanijemo amoko atatu, ari yo:

Ingagi yibera mu misozi migufi y’iburengerazuba (Gorilla Gorilla): gorilla gorilla gorilla na gorilla gorilla diehli.
Ingagi yibera mu misozi migufi y’iburasirazuba (Gorilla Beringei): Gorilla beringei beringei na Gorilla beringei graueri.
N’Ingagi zibera mu misozi miremire.

Kugeza ubu rero bamaze kwemeranwa ko hari amoko y’ingagi abiri, bumwe bumwe bukaba bugabanijemo amoko abiri. Mu gihe gishize, batangaje ko ubwoko bwa gatatu buzaturuka muri ayo moko abiri. Aya moko yombi yakomotse ku bwoko bumwe bw’ingagi mu gihe cyiswe icy’urubura (Ice Age), ubwo ubuturo bwazo bwo mu ishyamba bwazihindukaga zigatandukana. Twibutse ko ubwoko buvugwa aha ari ubwo abashakashatsi bemeranwaho gusa, ari yo aya: *Ingagi yibera mu misozi y’iburengerazuba (Gorilla Gorilla): gorilla gorilla gorilla na gorilla gorilla diehli.

Ingagi yibera mu misozi y’iburasirazuba (Gorilla Beringei): Gorilla beringei beringei na Gorilla beringei graueri.

Ubwoko bwa gatatu burimo kumvikanwaho bwitwa Bwindi, rimwe na rimwe bwitwa Bwindi Gorilla, bwo mu zibera mu misozi miremire. Mu bitandukanya amoko y’ingagi, twavugamo ireme bwite ryazo, ingano, ibara ry’umusatsi, uburebure, umuco ndetse n’ubugari bwo mu ruhanga. Kugeza ubu, ingagi zo mu mashyamba yo mu misozi migufi y’iburengerazuba zibarirwa ku bihumbi ijana (100,000), 4000 muri zo zikaba ziba mu mapariki; Ingagi zo mu mashyamba yo mu misozi migufi y’iburasirazuba zibarirwa ku bihumbi 4,000, 24 muri zo zikaba ziba mu mapariki; naho ingagi zo mu misozi miremire zibarirwa kuri 620 kandi zose ziba mu gasozi, zikaba ari nazo zikunda gushimutwa.
Uburyo zikoresha mu kugenda
ingagi iri kugenda
Ingagi zigendesha amaguru ane, ariko zishobora kugendesha amaguru abiri iyo zitagera kure, zijyanye amafunguro yazo cyangwa se zirwanira kwitabara.

Ingano yazo Ingagi zikuze z’ingabo (silverback) zishobora kugira igihagararo cya metero 1.65 kugeza kuri 1.75. zishobora kandi gupima ibiro 140 kugeza kuri 200; ingagi zikuze z’ingore akenshi ziba ari kimwe cya kabiri cy’ingabo. Zishobora kugira ubuhagarike bwa metero 1.4, n’uburemere bw’ibiro 100. Hagati aho ariko, mu ngagi zibera mu gasozi habonetsemo ipima metero 1.8 n’ibiro 230.
Amabara yazo

Ingagi zo mu burasirazuba zirirabura cyane kurusha izo mu burengerazuba, ariko izo mu misozi miremire zirusha zose kwirabura. Ingagi zo mu misozi miremire kandi zigira umusatsi itabyibushye. Ingagi zo mu misozi migufi y’iburengerazuba zishobora gutukura cyangwa zigasa n’ikigina ariko zikagira zitukura mu ruhanga. Byongeye kandi, ingagi ziba mu mashyamba yo mu misozi migufi ntiziramba nk’iziba mu miremire. Ingagi hafi ya zose zigira amaraso amwe, kandi zigira intoki nk’abantu.

Imyitwarire yazo

Iyo ziri hamwe mu matsinda

Iyo ingagi ziri hamwe mu matsinda, ziyoborwa n’iy’ingabo irengeje imyaka 12 izwi ku izina rya silverback (zahabu mu mugongo). Yiswe iri zina kubera ubwoya busa na zahabu buba ku mugongo wayo. Amenyo yayo akurikira ay’imbere ni maremare, kandi amera bikurikije imyaka yayo. Silverback imwe iyobora itsinda riba rigizwe n’ingagi 5 kugeza kuri 30. Ni yo ijya hagati yazo, igafatwa imyanzuro, ikemura amakimbirane, itegeka aho itsinda rigomba kwerekeza, iyobora izindi mu ruriro, ikazicungira umutekano ndetse ikbaungabunga ubuzima bw’itsinda. Izi ngagi z’ingabo ziba mu itsinda rya se, zigatangira kurivamo ku kigero cy’imyaka 11. Rimwe na rimwe, ingagi y’ingabo ishobora kuba mu itsinda rya se ikazayizungura imaze gusaza. Iz’ingore nazo iyo zimaze gukura, ziva mu itsinda ry’iwabo zikajya gushaka iy’ingabo (silverback). Ignore ntishobora kuguma mu itsinda, keretse imaze kubyarira silverback iriyobora. Iyo silverback ishotowe n’indi iyirusha gusoreka yo mu itsinda cyangwa hanze yaryo, iraboroga, ikikubita mu gituza, ikavuna amashami y’ibiti, igahekenya amenyo hanyuma igahita yiruka yerekera imbere. Iyo iyobora itsinda yishwe n’indwara, impanuka, imirwano cyangwa abashimusi, itsinda ryose riranyanyagira rikajya gushaka uburinzi ku yindi silverback. Aha haba hari impungenge ko ingabo nshya izica abana ignore yinjiranye mu itsinda.
Indyo n’imihigire yazo

Ingagi zirya ibyatsi, imbuto, amababi n’imizi, ariko hari ubushakashatsi buherutse kugaragaza ko zirya n’udukoko tw’inigwahabiri n’intozi n’ibimonyo.

Amasaha menshi y’umunsi, ingagi ziyamara zirya. Amenyo yazo manini azibashisha guhekenya ibimera bikomeye nk’imigano. Ingagi zo mu misozi migufi zirya imbuto, naho izo mu miremire zikarya ibyatsi, amababi n’imizi.
Imibereho n’imyororokere yazo

Ingagi y’ingore ihaka igihe cy’amezi 8½, abana bazo bagacukira imyaka iri hagati y’itatu n’ine. Ingagi y’ingore itangira kubyara ifite hagati y’imyaka 10 na 12, naho ingabo zikabyarira imyaka 11 na 13. Ingagi zisazira imyaka iri hagati ya 30 na 50, n’ubwo hagenda habaho impinduka: urugero ni nk’ingagi yo muri pariki yo muri Leta ya Dallas ho muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika yasaziye imyaka 55. Mu minsi mike ishize, ingagi zagiye zigaragara zikorera imibonano mpuzabitsina ahabona, mu gihe ibi byari bizwi ku bantu gusa.
Ubwenge bwazo

Ingagi ijya kumera nk’umuntu, kandi izwi nk’inyamaswa izi ubwenge cyane. Ingagi zorowe zagiye zigishwa kuvuga. Aha twavuga nk’iyitwa Koko. Kimwe n’andi moko y’inguge nini, ingagi zishobora guseka, kurira, kugira amarangamutima, gukoresha ibikoresho runaka no gutekereza ku byahise cyangwa ibizaza. Abashakashatsi bamwe bemeza ko ingagi igira ibitekerezo bitandukanye ndetse n’ibijyanye n’iyobokamana. Ingagi zagiye zigaragazwa nk’izifite umuco mu buzima bwazo. Abashakashatsi bavuze ibi bafatiye ku buryo zitegura amafunguro yazo, kandi zikagira amabara zikunda kuruta ayandi. Ku bijyanye no gukoresha ibikoresho, ingagi y’ingore yo muri pariki ya Nouabalé-Ndoki ho muri Repubulika Iharanira Demukaarasi ya Kongo yigeze yambuka amazi nyuma y’uko ifashe igiti igapima uburebure bwayo. Ibi byagarajwe n’ikipe y’umuryango ushinzwe kurinda inyamaswa zo mu gasozi, yari iyobowe na Thomas Breuer muri Nzeli 2005. Ingagi ya 2 y’ingore yabonywe yambukira ku giti, ndetse iza no kukirobesha. Ibi bivuga ko ingunge nini zose zikoresha ibikoresho. Muri Nzeli 2005 kandi, ingagi y’imyaka 2.5 yabonywe muri Repubulika Iharanira Demukarasi ya Konmgo, ikoresha ibuye ngo imene igishishwa cy’urubuto hanyuma ibone uko irurya.
Imibanire yazo n’abantu
Diana Fossey wakoze ubushakashatsi ku ngagi
Umukerarugendo Paul du Chaillu, ni we mwera wabaye uwa mbere mu kubona ingagi imbonankubone, ubwo yari ari mu rugendo rwe rwabereye muri Afurika y’uburengerazuba bwo hagati mu mwaka w’1856 kugeza mu w’1859, aza no kujyana imirambo yazo mu gihugu cy’Ubwongereza mu w’1861.

Nyuma y’intambara ya 2 y’isi, umushakashatsi George Schaller ni we wafashe iya mbere ajya mu gasozi kwiga inguge. Mu mwaka w’1959, yakoze ubushakashatsi bunimbitse ku ngagi yo mu misozi miremire itaba muri pariki, arabwandika, asohora igitabo cye. Mu myaka mike yakurikiyeho, Dian Fossey wakoreraga Louis Leakey na National Geographic yakoze ubiushakashatsi bunimbitse kandi busobanutse ku ngagi ziba mu misozi miremire. Mbere y’uko asohora igitabo gikubiyemo ubushakashatsi bwe, uburyo bwinshi abantu bafatagamo ingagi bwari bumaze kubeshyuzwa, harimo n’abavugaga ko ingagi ngo yaba yica abantu.
Ibyorezo byazo

Hashize igihe kitari gito amoko yombi y’ingagi yavuzwe haruguru afite ingorane zo kwicwa n’indwara ndetse no gushimutwa. Mu bihungabanya ubusugire bw’ingagi harimo kuzisenyera aho zibera no gucuruza inyama zazo. Mu mwaka w’2004, amagana menshi y’ingagi zabaga muri pariki ya Odzala ho muri Repubulika ya Kongo yahitanywe na virusi y’icyorezo cya Ebola. Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe mu mwaka w’2006 mu bijyanye n’ubumenyi bwanzuye ko ingagi zisaga 5,000 zishwe na virusi ya Ebola muri Afurika yo hagati. Abashakashatsi bagaragaje ko iyi virusi no guhiga ingagi bigenda bitsemba imibereho yazo.
Ibikorwa byo kurinda ubusugire bw’ingagi

Ingufu zo kurinda ibi biremwa by’igiciro bifitwe mu nshingano n’amasosiyeti Atari amwe. Muri yo harimo iyitwa Great Ape Survival Project (Umushinga wo kurinda inyamaswa nini zo mu bwoko bw’inguge) ifatanije n’Ishami ry’umuryango w’abibumbye ryita ku bidukikije (United Nations Environment Programme) ndetse n’Ishami ry’umuryango w’abibumbye ryita ku burezi, ubumenyi n’umuco (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). Hari kandi umuryango mpuzamahanga w’amasezerano ku irindwa ry’ingagi n’aho ziba (Agreement on the Conservation of Gorillas and Their Habitats). Umuryango w’amasezerano ku ngagi ni wo wa mbere ufite intego yo kurinda ingagi by’umwihariko. Washinzwe ku wa 1 Kamena 2008.
Ingagi mu muco w’abantu

Uhereye igihe zamenyekaniye mu bihugu by’uburengerazuba mu myaka ya za 1860, ingagi zabaye insanganyamatsiko y’umuco n’itangazamakuru. Urugero ni nko mu mafilimi yamenyekanye cyane nka King Kong, ndetse n’ibitabo by’amateka bya Tarzan na Conan byagaragaje ingagi nk’umwanzi ku bakinnyi bakuru.
Hifashishijwe

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