Ubuhinzi bw'Ibitunguru

 Ibitunguru « ALLIUM CEPA » kimwe na puwalo, tungurusumu bibarirwa mu muryango wa « Liliaceae » muri ordre ya Liliflores no mu muryango mugari wa « Monocotyledones »

 

  1. Umuryango w’ibihingwa : ibitunguru « ALLIUM CEPA » kimwe na puwalo, tungurusumu bibarirwa mu muryango wa « Liliaceae » muri ordre ya Liliflores no mu muryango mugari wa « Monocotyledones »
  2. Aho bikunda : bikunda mu Rwanda hose. Ariko kugirango ibijumba bibe binini, hagomba uburebure bw’umunsi mugufi buri hagati y’amasaha 12 na 16. Hagomba kandi ubushyuhe buri hejuru ya dogere 18 (18°C) kugirango ibitunguru bibyimbe bimere nk’ibihaze. Ubushyuhe buke bwo bubifasha mu gihe cyo gushibuka, gukura no kuzana indabo.
  3. Ubutaka: Onyo ikunda ubutaka bworoshye, butari burebure cyane kandi bwumutse neza. Ntabwo ikunda ubutaka buhora butose kandi n’ubutaka bw’ibumba si bwiza. Ikunda ubutaka burimo potasi. Niyo mpamvu, umuhinzi agomba kubufumbiza ivu.
  4. Amoko : Amoko yamamazwa mu Rwanda ni aya :

– igitunguru gitukura : Red Cléole

– igitunguru cy’umuhondo : Texas grano

Ayo moko afite amabara atandukanye. Niyo mpamvu umuhinzi areba ibara n’impumuro (parfum) y’ubwoko agiye guhinga kuko aribyo abaguzi bakunze kwibandaho.

  1. Ifumbire : kubera ko ifumbire ari ingirakamaro mu gutunganya imiterere y’ubutaka, ni ngombwa gushyiramo ifumbire iboze neza cyane. Kg 200/are 1 iba ihagije.
  2. Igihe cy’ihinga :- kwinaza muri pepiniyeri : Mata-Kamena

– bihingwa (kugemura) mu mpeshyi ariko bikavomerwa. Bigomba gutangira kwera mbere y’imvura yo mu kwezi kwa Nzeri

  1. Gutera ibitunguru :

– Habanza kwinaza umurama mu buhumbikiro bakoresha g 5/m² 1. Bataba umurama muri mm 5-10 ku mirongo bagasigamo cm 10 hagati yayo.

– Urwinarizo rufite m² 100 rurahagije kugirango ubone ingemwe zahinga ha 1

– Igihe bimara mu rwinarizo : iminsi 45 kugeza kuri 60

– Bagemura onyo ifite umubyimba w’igice cyo hasi ungana n’ikaramu nto, icyo gihe amababi aba areshya na cm 15-20

– Uko bagemura : mbere yo gutera ingemwe, babanza gushabura iminsi y’ingemwe, itemerwa kuri cm 1 hepfo y’ikijumba cya onyo kandi ntibakuraho imitwe y’amababi

– Bazitera kuri cm 20-25 hagati y’imirongo na cm 5-10 ku mirongo ni ukuvuga ingemwe 450.000/ha

– Urugemwe ruterwa kuri cm 3 z’ibujyakuzimu, nyuma bamara gutera bagasubiranya kandi bagatsindagira itaka ryo hejuru

– Iyo ushaka ibitunguru bitari binini kuko aribyo bibikika, utera ingemwe nyinshi/are

  1. Gukorera ibitunguru :

– Kubagara kenshi ariko unamenera kugirango ubutaka bworohe no kugirango ibyatsi bidakura vuba bigakwirakwiza indwara

– Iyo onyo itangiye kubyibuha, bataba ivu iruhande rwayo.

– Kwambura ibijumba by’ibitunguru ubutaka kugirango bishobore kubyimba no gufata ibara.

Bikorwa ibitunguru biri hafi yo kwera babanza kubigondera amababi ku munigo wayo

(collet).

  1. Indwara n’ibyonnyi : a) Isazi ya onyo :

Ikiyitera : isazi y’ibitunguru

Aho ifata : igihingwa cyose

Ibimenyetso : amababi aratumba. Inyo ziyo sazi zica utuyira mu gitunguru maze kikabora kikananuka cyane

Uko bayirwanya :

– kurandura no gutwikira mu mwobo ibitunguru byafashwe

– kuvanga onyo na karoti kuko karoti yirukana isazi ifata onyo, naho onyo ikirukana ifata karoti

– aho isazi yageze, nta onyo igomba gusubira muri uwo murima mbere y’imyaka 3

  1. Ububore bw’umweru (mildiou + alternariose)

Ikiyitera : uduhumyo Peronospora scheideni + Alternaria porri

Aho ifata : ku mababi no ku bijumba by’igitunguru

Ibimenyetso : Onyo zikiri nto zihinduka umuhondo kandi zikarandurwa n’ubusa. Ku bitunguru haba hatwikiriwe n’utwoya tweruruka ndetse rimwe na rimwe hakabaho utuntu tw’umukara

Uko bayirwanya :

– gusimburanya ibihingwa mu murima

– guhumbika no gutera onyo mu murima uhinze neza

– gukoresha imiti ya kizungu :

– Dithane : gr 50/L 10 z’amazi/ari 2

– Cupro-antracol : 2 Kg/ha

– Milraz : 2 Kg/ha

  1. Ububore bw’ikijuju :

Ikiyitera : uduhumyo (Aspergillus niger na Sclerotium cepivorum)

Aho ifata : ibitunguru

Ibimenyetso : mu gihe bibitse, ibitunguru byuzuraho amoya y’ikijuju cyangwa ibintu by’umukara kandi bikomeye. Amaherezo ibitunguru birabora neza neza

Uko bayirwanya :

– kwanika neza ibitunguru mbere yo kubihunika kandi bigahunikwa ahantu humutse

– gukuramo ibitunguru byafashwe kugirango bitanduza ibindi

– kubibika ahantu hari umwuka uhagije kandi bimanitse

  1. Indwara iterwa n’inzoka y’ibimera :

Ikiyitera : inzoka yitwa Angilile (Ditylenchus dispaci)

Aho ifata : amababi, ibitunguru

Ibimenyetso : onyo ziranuka. Amababi aratumba. Ibitunguru birafobagana. Igitunguru kirisatura maze kikabora.

Uko bayirwanya :

– gutwikira mu mwobo onyo zafashwe

– gusubiza onyo muri uwo murima nyuma y’imyaka 4-5

  1. Iminsi zerera : basarura onyo iyo ibibabi byazo byumye neza neza, igishishwa cy’inyuma kimeze nk’urupapuro rushaje. Bitewe n’ubwoko bw’ubutunguru n’akarere bihinzemo, ibitunguru byera nyuma y’amezi 3-4 bigemuriwe mu murima
  2. Umurumbuko : umusaruro w’ibitunguru kuri ha 1 uri hagati ya toni 30 na toni 70 bitewe n’uburemere bwa buri gitunguru.
  3. Guhunika :

– iyo bamaze gusarura onyo zeze, bazanika ku zuba

– izimaze kugabanukamo amazi bareba izitarwaye, izidatemye bakazibika ku mbaho cyangwa ku byatsi byumye ahantu humutse kandi hinjiramo umwuka uhagije

– bashobora no kumanika ibitunguru byiza mu gisenge

N.B. :

  1. Ibitunguru bishobora kubikwa mu gihe kiri hagati y’amezi 4 na 6. Ibyo aribyo byose ibigomba gupfa muri icyo gihe ntibigomba kurenga 30% y’ibyabitswe.
  2. Iyi nyandiko ushobora kuyihuza n’igihe bitewe n’ubushakashatsi bugenda bugerwaho mu buhinzi bw’ibitunguru bityo imibare imwe nimwe ikagenda ihinduka bitewe n’aho uri kubihinga.

Byateguwe hifashishijwe imfashanyigisha za MINAGRI, 2007

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